Basic First Aid

Stay prepared and safe when protesting! I recommend practicing these skills with family or friends so you're sure you have the knowledge down.
If any of the skills confuses you, or you're not sure what it looks like in real time, please look it up on youtube! There are tons of videos of people explaining these concepts that can visually walk you through each step.
REMEMBER- if you are assigning tasks to bystanders (such as calling 911) single someone out CLEARLY! make eye contact with the person, point to them, etc.

ALSO PLEASE NOTE- emergency services may be delayed or blocked. if that is the case, please transport the person to a hospital via car if necessary!

Someone Is Stuck Under Something

when someone's limb or body is trapped underneath an object
THEY'VE BEEN STUCK FOR LESS THAN 15 MINUTES
release the compressive object/forcecontrol any bleeding (see: bleeding)treat for shock (see: shock)call EMSTHEY'VE BEEN STUCK FOR LONGER THAN 15 MINUTES
DO NOT release the compressive force/objectcall EMSmonitor their statuscalm, reassure, and stay with the person

Pepper Spray

PLEASE REMAIN CALM IF YOU ARE PEPPER SPRAYED. YOU DO NOT WANT TO BREATHE IN MORE THAN NECESSARY. TRY YOUR BEST TO BREATHE SLOWLY.
EYES
as with tear gas, flush out the area with cool water or saline spray for at least 15 minutesif one eye is infected, flush outward from the nose side of the eye to prevent the other eye from being infectedremove contacts and makeup IMMEDIATELY milk may provide temporary relief from symptoms but can also cause eye infections! it is okay to use on your body, thoughBODY
get to a safe, non-enclosed area with fresh air ASAPuse a steady stream of water/saline spray shower in COOL water (hot water with reactivate it)do NOT use lotions, vaselines, etc; they trap the pepper spray against your skin!!1 part dawn dish soap and 3 parts COLD water can be used to clean your body and face. DO NOT RUB IT IN. you want to SUBMERGE your face or body into itthrow your clothes in the wash immediately after arriving homePREVENTION
do not wear eye makeup or contactswear goggles/something to protect your eyeswear something to cover your mouth and nose to protect your airwayscover any woundscarry at least two bottles of clean water with you

Tear Gas

PLEASE REMAIN CALM IF YOU ARE TEAR GASSED. YOU DO NOT WANT TO BREATHE MORE IN THAN NECESSARY. IT MAY FEEL LIKE YOU CAN'T BREATHE -- PLEASE TRY TO REMAIN CALM AND BREATHE SLOWLY.
EYES
flush eyes with large amounts of COOL WATER for at least 15 minutesif only one eye is infected: flush outward from the nose side of the eye to prevent contamination of the other eyeCOOL water and saline solution to flush out eyes (milk can temporarily relieve symptoms, but ultimately may give you eye infections)if you are wearing contacts TAKE THEM OUT IMMEDIATELY! remove makeup ASAPBODY
get to a safe, non-enclosed area with fresh air ASAP it's important to use a steady stream of water, so continuously pour water/saline solution on the area shower with COOL water; heat will reactivate itDO NOT USE LOTIONS, VASELINE, ETC; they trap it against your skin3 teaspoons of baking soda per 8oz of COOL water can be used to wash off your face and body. Do not rub it in, simply SUBMERGE your face and bodymilk is okay to use on the bodydon't touch your face or rub your eyesany clothing needs to go immediately in the wash- it's contaminatedtry not to touch any furniture or linger in your home until you've removed all contaminated clothing and taken a cool showerPREVENTION
wear goggles/something to protect your eyesdo not wear eye makeup or contactscarry at least two bottles of clean water wear something to cover your mouth and nose to prevent it from getting in your airwaykeep any wounds covered

Bleeding

apply direct pressure to the wound (press down hard on it) with gauze, absorbent clothing, towels, etccut away clothing for access to the wound if necessary if you can, wrap a bandage around it firmlyraise limb up highIF BLEEDING SEEPS THROUGH BANDAGES:
continuously pack on more bandages and keep applying pressure IF A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF BLOOD IS BEING LOST AND NOT SLOWING DOWN, CALL EMS OR GET THE PERSON TO A HOSPITAL IMMEDIATELY PLEASE NOTE
you should never use a tourniquet unless you have been properly trained!! if done incorrectly, it could result in a lost limb!!

Bloody Nose

have the person pinch the bridge of their nose and lean FORWARD paper towels, absorbent clothing, etc. at their nostrilsif the bleeding doesn't stop after 5 minutes, seek out a doctor

Broken Limb

call EMSkeep the limb in the position it was foundplace your hands above and below the injury to stabilize the limbif a bone is sticking out of the skin and bleeding is present, apply direct pressure around the bone/injuryif it is crucial that you move the person, apply a splint using towels, blankets, clothing, cardboard, or woodto make a splint
immobilize the limb above and below the injurysplint the limb in the position it was foundpad the splints where they touch any bony part of the bodyafter splinting, check the limb frequently for paleness, numbness, discoloration, or swelling. if any of these are present, loosen the splint
IF THE LIMB IS DEFORMED, SEVERELY SWOLLEN, TURNING BLUE/PURPLE/EXTREMELY PALE, GET THEM TO A HOSPITAL IMMEDIATELY

Concussion

SYMPTOMS
inability to remember what happened moments before injury or recall simple facts about itstunned or dazedheadachenauseadizzinessproblems with balance/visionconfusionTREATMENT
get them to a hospital ASAPkeep them away from dangerous situations or objectsprotect their head from any more blows

Dehydration

get the person out of the sungive the person a drink with electrolytes in it (such as gatorade) if possible, or waterhave them SIP the water slowly, do not let them drink it too quicklyif the following symptoms are present, also treat them for heat exhaustion
heavy sweatingthirstmuscle twitches that lead to crampingcool, moist skinweakness and dizzinessfaintness and collapsingnausea or vomitingheadache

Difficulty Breathing and Asthma Attacks

SYMPTOMS
sudden onset of wheezing or coughingshortness of breathchest tightnessextreme difficulty breathing, with chest and neck pulled instooped body posturebluish color to lips and faceTREATMENT
sit the person in the most comfortable position for them to breatheloosen tight clothingif they have a prescribed inhaler, help them administer it (do not use an inhaler from someone else- the medicine could be different from the one they need)-- how to use an inhaler detailed below
monitor them and try to keep them calm; if they do not seem to improve within 5 minute call EMSIF THEY STOP BREATHING
check for their heartbeat; if there isn't one you will have to begin CPR immediatelyif their heartbeat is still present but they are not breathing, you will have to move into Rescue BreathsRescue Breaths
continue to monitor their heartbeat while you do thistilt the person's head back while pushing their jaw forward -- to push the jaw forward, feel under their earlobes for the corner of their jaw. press against that area between the corner and ear
pinch the person's nose shuttake a normal breath in and seal your mouth over their mouthbreathe out for about 1 second with enough force to make the chest rise, but no moregive 5 initial breaths and allow the chest to rise and fall after each oneafter your 5 initial breaths continue at a rate of 1 breath per every 5 secondsCALL EMS IMMEDIATELY IF THE PERSON IS NOT BREATHING OR THEIR LIPS/FINGERS ARE A BLUEISH-PURPLE COLOR

how to use an inhaler
remove the mouthpiece covershake for about 5 secondshave the person put the inhaler in their mouth and make sure their lips are sealed around itpress down on the top and allow the person to breathe in until their lungs are full (about 4-6 seconds)have them hold the medicine in their lungs for about 10 seconds, then breathe outif they need another dose, wait 15-30 seconds, then do the process again

Rescue Breathing

rescue breathing is used when a person is no longer breathing but does still have a heartbeat. while doing this, you should be closely monitoring their heartbeat-- you could have to begin CPR.
ALWAYS CALL EMS IMMEDIATELY IF THE PERSON IS NOT BREATHING
rescue breathing
continue to monitor their heartbeat while you do thistilt the person's head back while pushing their jaw forward -- to push the jaw forward, feel under their earlobes for the corner of their jaw. press against that area between the corner and ear
pinch the person's nose shuttake a normal breath in and seal your mouth over their mouthbreathe out for about 1 second with enough force to make the chest rise, but no moregive 5 initial breaths and allow the chest to rise and fall after each oneafter your 5 initial breaths continue at a rate of 1 breath per every 5 seconds

Heart Attack

SYMPTOMS
*keep in mind that symptoms can range from very slight to very severe, and that absence of chest pain does NOT rule out a heart attack!
chest pain or dull discomfort behind the breastbone that may spread to the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomachshortness of breathnausea, dizziness, light headednessheavy sweatinganxiety and fear of impending doomuncertainty and embarrassmentdenialwomen often describe indigestionunusual symptoms include belching, headaches, sudden ringing in the ears, hiccupsTREATMENT
IMMEDIATELY CALL EMSsit or lie them down comfortablyif possible, give them 1 adult aspirin or 2 low-dose aspirinif they have any heart medication, help them administer itcontinuously monitor their breathing and heartbeatPLEASE NOTE
you should never tell someone they are having a heart attack. you will cause them to panic which will make the situation much worse!

Heat Exhaustion

SYMPTOMS
heavy sweatingthirstmuscle twitches that lead to crampingcool, moist skinweakness and dizzinessfaintness and collapsingheadachenausea or vomitingTREATMENT
move the person out of the sun to a cool arealoosen or remove excess clothinghave the person lie down comfortably and raise their legs about 6-12 in (14-30cm)spray water or apply cool, wet cloths to their head and torsogive them a drink with electrolytes (such as gatorade) if possible, or a water and make sure they SIP it-- do not allow them to drink too quicklyif they don't seem to improve within a few minutes or they appear to be getting worse, call EMS

Heatstroke

SYMPTOMS
many or all of the symptoms of heat exhaustion along with...altered and decreasing mental status (confusion, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, seizures, unresponsiveness)possible hot, red, dry skinTREATMENT
IMMEDIATELY CALL EMSmove the person to a cool place out of the sun, but don't delay body cooling to do sospray or pour water on the person's neck, groin, and armpitsplace the person in the side-lying recovery position (detailed below)provide continuous cooling until EMS arrivesdo not give them anything by mouth if they are unresponsive or vomitingRECOVERY POSITION
this position stops the person from choking on their vomit. continue to cool them while they are in this position.
with the person lying on their back, move one of their arms straight up by their earbend the opposite side's leg and roll them forward so that their head now rests on their straight armcontinuously monitor breathing and heartbeat

Low Blood Sugar

SYMPTOMS
pale or sweatyaltered mental statusanxiety or tremblingpounding heartmay appear drunkhungry or weakfaintingTREATMENT
attempt to raise their blood sugar by giving them sugary foods or drinksif the person is diabetic, they may have glucose tablets with them-- have them eat thoseimprovement will be gradual, but if they don't improve or seem to be getting worse within 10-15 minutes, call EMSIF THEY ARE UNRESPONSIVE OR UNABLE TO SWALLOW
call EMS immediatelydo not try to give them anything by mouth, just keep them out of harm's way

Seizures

PLEASE NOTE- people known to have frequent seizures usually do not need to go to a hospital. those that do not have frequent seizures should be taken to a hospital ASAP.

SIMPLE SEIZURE
a simple seizure means the person does not lose consciousness
SYMPTOMS
staring spellsconfusionwandering aimlesslystrange behaviorTREATMENT
do not restrain themguide them away from dangercomfort, calm, and stay with the person until the seizure is overCOMPLEX SEIZURE
a complex seizure means the person loses consciousness
SYMPTOMS
the person suddenly becomes stiff and falls to the groundtwitching, shaking, or convulsionsthe person recovers quickly but may be confusedTREATMENT
stay calm and note the timemove any objects that may harm themdon't restrain the personallow the seizure to take its courseDO NOT PUT ANYTHING IN THE PERSON'S MOUTH -- they won't swallow their tonguewhen the seizure is over, place the person in recovery position (detailed below)RECOVERY POSITION
this position stops the person from choking on their vomit.
with the person lying on their back, move one of their arms straight up by their earbend the opposite side's leg and roll them forward so that their head now rests on their straight armcontinuously monitor breathing and heartbeat

Severe Allergic Reactions

SYMPTOMS
rapid onset of...
hives or itchingswelling of lips, face, throat, and tongueextreme difficulty breathingcoughing or wheezingpounding heartabdominal pain or crampingaltered mental statusblueness of lips, skin, or nail bedscomplete airway obstructionTREATMENT
-IMMEDIATELY CALL EMS, EPIPENS ARE A TEMPORARY FIX
help them administer their epipen if necessaryto administer an epipen
remove the cap (usually orange) and hold it needle end (usually blue) downstab it firmly into the person's outer thigh, hold for about 10 seconds, then remove straight outmassage the injection area for about 15 secondsPLEASE NOTE- you should only use the person's epipen, not anyone else's!

Stroke

SYMPTOMS
sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, leg on one side of the bodysudden confusion, difficulty speaking, or trouble understandingsudden trouble seeing in one or both eyessudden trouble walking, balancing, coordinating or dizzinesssudden severe headachemay appear drunkuse FAST to easily determine if it is a stroke
Face: does their face droop on one side? is their smile lopsided or uneven?
Arms: can they raise both of their arms? does one drift down? ask them to squeeze your hands. does one hand squeeze hard and the other not at all?
Speech: can they say simple sentences? do their words sound strange or is their speech slurred?
Time: is there a delay in their reactions or speaking?
TREATMENT
IMMEDIATELY CALL EMSdo not give them anything to eat or drinkif you have something to give them oxygen, use itcalm, comfort, and reassure the person until EMS arrivesmonitor their condition closely PLEASE NOTE- you should NEVER tell a person they are having a stroke. you will cause them to panic which will make things much worse!

Wounds With Something In Them

DO NOT REMOVE WHATEVER IT IScall EMS or transport the person to a hospitalkeep the person stillif needed, sit, lie, or support the person so that their weight is not on the woundif the wound is bleeding, apply direct pressure (press down hard on it) with gauze, clothing, or towels if the bleeding seeps through the gauze, keep packing more bandaging on and applying pressure

Burns

Minor Burns
SYMPTOMS
painrednessswellingblistersTREATMENT
cool the burn area with cool or cold clean water ASAPcontinue cooling for at least 10 minutesclean, cool, and cold (not frozen) dressings can be used if water is not availableif it is a very large burn, be careful that the rest of the body doesn't experience hypothermialeave blisters intactloosely cover with dry, sterile dressingprotect burns from pressure or friction and refrain from putting anything on it (even natural remedies)Critical Burns
includes...
burns involving hands, face, eyes, ears, and feetelectrical burns burns involving smoke inhalation or injurySYMPTOMS
skin may appear dry, leathery, white, blackened, or charredTREATMENT
call EMS or take the person to a hospital immediately-- especially if the person is having trouble breathing, they have broken skin, or burns over a large area.expose the burn (gently remove any clothing covering it)if clothing is stuck to the burn, do not remove itremove any jewelry near the burn area (burns cause swelling)separate burned fingers or toes with dry, sterile, nonadhesive dressings lightly cover the burn area with dry, sterile bandagesperform CPR if the burn was caused by electricity and the person is unresponsiveif the burn was caused by electricity and the person is responsive, treat the burns you see and seek medical attention quicklyChemical Burns
skin makes contact with wet, dry, or gaseous chemicals
SYMPTOMS
may cause itching or burning sensationTREATMENT
brush off any dry chemical with a gloved handremove contaminated clothingflush the affected area with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutescover any visible burns loosely with a dry, clean bandage and seek medical attention

Shock

SYMPTOMS
uneaserestlessnessworryconfusiondiminishing responsivenesspale, cool, sweaty skinTREATMENT
call EMS or take them to a hospital immediatelyensure their airway is open and they have a normal breathing patterncontrol any external bleeding or wounds (refer to the applicable tab)lay the person down comfortably and raise feet about 12in if they are uninjureddo not give them anything to eat or drink, even if they ask for itkeep the person calm and reassured until you arrive at a hospital or EMS arrives

CPR

PLEASE NOTE- while i have included CPR, i only recommend doing it if you are properly trained and comfortable with your knowledge.

position the person faceup on a flat, firm surfacemake sure their head is tilted back and airway is openkneel close to their sideplace the heel of one hand on the center of their chest, on the lower half of the breastboneplace the heel of the other hand over it and interlock your fingers to keep them off of the person's chestbring your body up and over the chest so your shoulders are directly above your hands. KEEP YOUR ELBOWS LOCKED AND ARMS STRAIGHTbending at the waist, use your body weight to push straight down at least 2 inches (it's going to be difficult and you'll have to push harder than you think)without interruption, continue compressions30 compressions, then 2 breathswhen giving breaths, make sure the person's airway is open and their jaw is thrust forwardgive two breaths, allowing the chest to rise and fall completely between each onecontinue compressions and breaths until EMS arrives or the person wakes upcontinue to monitor their breathing and heartbeat to notice any change

Glass Removal

if it is a small amount of glass or small pieces...
use a pair of tweezers to remove the glass gently and safely dispose of itbe careful to remove it straight out if the end is not protruding, use a small needle to loosen the glass, then use tweezersclean the wound with rubbing alcohol once the glass has been removedif the glass...
is deep or longer than about half an inch or 1 centimeter is in the face, especially near the eyesinvolves injury to underlying structures such as ligaments or tendonswas contaminated with somethinghas dirt, gravel, or stones stuck with itis extremely painfulis in large pieces deeply embeddedplease seek out a medical professional immediately

Gunshot Wound

FIRST AND FOREMOST
get the person and yourself to safety ASAPcall EMS or have a way to the hospital lined up ASAP
WHILE YOU WAIT FOR EMS TO ARRIVE
apply direct pressure to the wound to control the bleeding (this means press down hard on it) using gauze, absorbent towels, or clothingIF THE BULLET IS STILL IN THE WOUND, DO NOT REMOVE ITif the wound is not on the chest or stomach, elevate it above the heart to slow the bleeding (maintain direct pressure)for chest wounds: use some type of plastic to form a seal over the wound (to prevent air from getting in)continue to monitor heartbeat and breathing, you may have to begin CPR or rescue breaths (see: CPR) (see: Rescue Breathing) treat for shock if necessary but do not elevate the legs for this if the wound is above the legs (see: Shock)if the blood seeps through your bandages, continue to pack on more bandages and keep applying direct pressurePLEASE NOTE- the person WILL BE in pain when you are applying pressure to stop the bleeding. DO NOT LET THAT STOP YOU. you have to press down HARD on it-- this could save their life.